Submission Date


Document Type

Paper- Restricted to Campus Access


African American and Africana Studies

Second Department


Faculty Mentor

Edward Onaci

Second Faculty Mentor

Patricia Lott

Project Description

When Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale created the Black Panther Party in 1966, they saw a need for solidarity between like-minded groups. With Fred Hampton leading the way, they formed a Rainbow Coalition intended to unite communities of color and impoverished whites in the fight against racism, police brutality, and the oppression of the working class. Because their work threatened to upset the white power structure in America, the Federal Bureau of Investigation perceived their efforts as a threat to national security and took steps to “neutralize” them. The actions of the state provoke me to question the viability of a strictly non-violent approach to achieving equality and solidarity between oppressed groups. Therefore, my Summer Fellows project will research the history of the Black Panther Party and their efforts to build solidarity despite the violent repression against them.


Presented during the 23rd Annual Summer Fellows Symposium, July 23, 2021 at Ursinus College.


Available to Ursinus community only.