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This article demonstrates that the popularity of the idea of crusading as vengeance was not limited to the laity, and, instead of fading away after 1099, the ideology grew more widespread as the twelfth century progressed. The primary aim here is to present the evidence alongside preliminary analysis, reserving further, more detailed interpretation for future publications.


Susanna A. Throop was affiliated with the University of New Hampshire at Manchester at the time of publication.

Article originally published and copyright by Ashgate for The Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. Crusades, Volume 5, Number 1, June 2006, pp. 21-38.

Details of the definitive version are available at