Document Type

Paper- Restricted to Campus Access

Publication Date


Faculty Mentor

Catherine van de Ruit


Pain management is a hot button since the opioid crisis began. However, it has become apparent that not all hospitals treat pain with the same protocols, which leads to over or undermentioned patients and a different level of care. This research utilizes a secondary analysis of five qualitative data interviews with CRNAs and anesthesiologists that was collected between 2012-2014 in connection with the Armstrong Institute at Johns Hopkins, University of Pennsylvania, and the Agency for Healthcare Research (AHRQ) and outside primary journals. The preliminary analysis points toward protocol ambiguity. This is important because patients are getting a different standard level of care at various hospitals, and this can lead to under-treatment of pain. The difference in how opioids are viewed and how the guidelines are created before and after the opioid crisis shows that patients are regularly undertreated.


Presented as part of the Ursinus College Celebration of Student Achievement (CoSA) held April 22, 2021.

The downloadable .mp4 video file is a poster presentation with audio commentary with a run time of 8:21.


Available to Ursinus community only.