Submission Date


Document Type

Paper- Restricted to Campus Access


Health & Exercise Physiology


Nicole Ivaska

Committee Member

Kyle Beyer

Committee Member

Lisa Grossbauer

Committee Member

Nicole Ivaska

Department Chair

April Carpenter

Project Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between sex hormone levels and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Using both salivary and blood samples, a predictive focused study was conducted to determine the odds of antibody presence at a particular time post infection in relation to estrogen and testosterone levels. The morbidity and mortality rates of COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted men greater than females. The structural and chemical differences between testosterone and estrogen may explain the disparities and indicate possible protective properties. We hypothesized that higher estradiol levels and lower testosterone levels will increase the odds of circulating SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Collection of qualitative information and samples occurred on the Ursinus College campus. Participation was limited to Ursinus students, faculty, and staff. ELISA analysis revealed that 17ß-estradiol levels (R = 13.5%) impacted longevity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies greater than testosterone (R = 3.3%). We concluded that the immunoenhancing effects of 17ß-estradiol have greater impacts on COVID-19 antibodies and may influence future COVID-19 protocols.


This project was funded by the Athena-Cutler Grant Scholarship in addition to the Health and Exercise Physiology Department that provided funding for COVID-19 research.