In 1999, the Educational Testing Service created a Strivers Index where students who scored 200 points higher than expected on the SAT exam, based on their socioeconomic background, were called Strivers. Similarly, an Underachiever is a student who scores 200 below expected on the SAT. The presumption is that tagging a student as Striver or Underachiever will assist admissions offices in selecting the students. How Strivers and Underachievers perform in their first year academically and their college persistence patterns are examined in this paper.
O'Neill, Heather M., "Strivers and Underachievers: Effects on First Year College Grades and Retention" (2003). Business and Economics Faculty Publications. 4.