Submission Date


Document Type




Faculty Mentor

Rebecca Roberts


Presented during the 18th Annual Summer Fellows Symposium, July 22, 2016 at Ursinus College.

Supported by a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) grant.

Project Description

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) can cause adverse health effects by tampering with the body’s endocrine system, which controls growth, development, and overall homeostasis. Bisphenols are a group of chemicals that are structurally similar; some are known endocrine disrupters. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical found in thermoplastics and epoxy resins, and can be found in products such as hard-plastic water bottles, the inside lining of food cans, medical equipment, dental sealants, and thermal receipt paper. The release of studies detailing the estrogenic activity of BPA prompted both scientists and consumers to campaign for a BPA-free movement. Producers looking for a BPA replacement quickly turned to other bisphenol analogs, two of which are bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF). It has been suggested that these chemicals act similarly to BPA, but more research on their effects is needed, especially if they are to be used in products that will be used by humans. MCF-7 is a human breast carcinoma cell line that is estrogen dependent. Using these cells, our study seeks to discover the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the proliferation of breast cancer cells, and to determine if that proliferation is dependent on an estrogen-mediated pathway. As a result, BPA, BPS, and BPF induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Further studies are required in order to eliminate assay consistency.

Available for download on Wednesday, July 22, 2026

Open Access

Available to all.

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Biology Commons