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The rapid and global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019 has resulted in a pandemic known as The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). While it is categorized by its respiratory and flu-like symptoms, severe cases of COVID-19 have shown to cause neurological symptoms. This virus has the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and uses the spike 1 protein (S1) to interact with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to result in different cellular responses. Once within the central nervous system, SARS-CoV-2 commonly results in an abundant release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, known as the cytokine storm, which can cause inflammation. Microglia are a key regulator in this inflammatory and immune response through the release of these cytokines. Our study utilizes BV-2 microglia cells to identify the modulation of cytokine release upon infection with the S1 glycoprotein. We analyzed trends of 23 different cytokines through a cytokine array. We have identified that the inflammatory response to the S1 glycoprotein can begin within as little as 1 hour post-infection and seems to reside within 72 hours. Investigating the release of these cytokines can aid in the understanding of microglia activation during the cytokine storm associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Burns, Courtney, "The Modulation of SARS-CoV-2 S1 Glycoprotein on the Cytokine Activity of Microglia Cells" (2022). Biology Honors Papers. 49.